Ionic liquids are polyatomic organic salts composed of asymmetric cations and various anions, generally composed of organic cations and inorganic anions. With the deepening of the research and application of ionic liquids, the designability of ionic liquids has brought new opportunities for the application and development of various fields. By having functional groups with special functions on the anions and cations of conventional ionic liquids, functional ionic liquids with certain properties and application designs can be formed. The method of synthesizing ionic liquid generally adopts the conventional one-step method and two-step method. But sometimes the traditional synthesis method takes a long time and requires a large amount of organic solvent to reflux, and some also need nitrogen protection, which not only pollutes the environment but also increases the preparation cost. Therefore, some special synthesis methods, such as the external field enhancement method (divided into microwave and ultrasonic synthesis methods), can greatly increase the reaction rate. Ionic liquids based on special synthesis methods are generally imidazole ionic liquids. Imidazole ionic liquids are the most commonly used ionic liquids in the industry and have been widely used in catalytic synthesis and separation and extraction of natural products.
Figure 1. General structural formula of imidazole ionic liquid based on special synthesis
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