- Pyridinium-Based Ionic Liquids
- Disubstituted Pyridinium-Based Ionic Liquids
Ionic liquids are salts that consist only of ions and they are liquid at room or low temperatures. When the cation that makes up the ionic liquid is pyridine group, it is called a pyridinium-based ionic liquid. In the structural formula, when two active sites on the pyridine group are replaced by other functions, it is called a disubstituted pyridinium-based ionic liquid. The general structural formula is shown in Figure 1. In general, R is an alkyl chain. Another more common site to be replaced by other functional groups is R2 or R3. Y- can be CF3SO3-, BF4-, PF6-, CF3COO-, SbF6- and others. Compared with traditional organic solvents and electrolytes, disubstituted pyridinium-based ionic liquids have a series of outstanding advantages. First, disubstituted pyridinium-based ionic liquids have almost no vapor pressure, which makes them nonvolatile, colorless and tasteless. Secondly, disubstituted pyridinium-based ionic liquids have wide stable temperature range, good chemical stability and wide window of electrochemical stable potential. Thirdly, through the design of cationic and anionic structures, the solubility degree of disubstituted pyridinium-based ionic liquids to inorganic matters and organic matters can be adjusted. Therefore, in recent years, disubstituted pyridinium-based ionic liquids, as environmentally friendly solvents, have been developed rapidly in the world.
Figure 1 The general structural formula of disubstituted pyridinium-based ionic liquid.
Commonly used disubstituted pyridinium-based ionic liquids include N-butyl-3-methylpyridine chloride, N-butyl-3-methylpyridine bromide, N-butyl-3-methylpyridine tetrafluoroborate, N-butyl-3-methylpyridine hexafluorophosphate and others.
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